causes of deforestation in ghana

Increasing forest cover? By 1950, the area had been reduced to 4.2 million ha and further to about 1.5 million ha by 1999 (Owusu et. Student wins landmark court case against IPS. Other drivers identified included illegal timber harvesting (35%) and Galamsey (5%) Deforestation is the permanent effect of the destruction of forests to make space and land for other uses. Land clearing for timber exportation is also rampant and hunting puts pressure on native species of various habitats in Ghana’s once-expansive rainforest. The world 's highest rates of deforestation, a significant cause of global warming, are happening in the key emerging economies of Nigeria, Indonesia and Brazil. Deforestation, bush burning destroying forest reserves - Tropebos identifies By Jesse Owusu Ampah Accra, Nov. 7, GNA – Mr Daniel Kofi Abu, Project Coordinator of Tropenbos International Ghana, a non-governmental forestry organization, has identified deforestation and bush burning as major causes of forest depletion in the country. Their efforts will not be successful until they are complemented with efforts of forest fringe communities. Therefore, impacts on biodiversity can have strong effects on ecosystem services (Cardinale, 2012). Forests, which cover 30% of Earth’s surface, are critically important to just about every aspect of life, especially in the face of climate change. Deforestation is one of the leading human causes of desertification. Stretching more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) along a bank of hills in the Ashanti region of southern Ghana, Tano-Offin Forest Reserve has lost more than 16 percent of its old-growth forest since 2001, according to satellite data from the University of Maryland. Various vegetation indices (VIs) have developed to measure vegetative vigour and biomass with most popular ones using red and near infrared wavelengths to emphasize the difference between the strong absorption of red electromagnetic radiation the scatter of near infrared radiation (Lu et al. Causes of deforestation Air pollution is the source of acid rain, which weakens and damages trees and poisons the soil in the forests. Training border officials in the identification of illegal logs is required. is that in both Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, deforestation linked to cocoa production, the core concern of the CFI, has increased — not decreased — since the launch of the Frameworks. Records show that at the turn of the last century, Ghana had about 8.8 million ha of primary forest. The resistance to invasion increase with the plant biodiversity. ‘Deforestation refers to the cutting, clearing, and removal of rainforest or related ecosystems into less bio-diverse ecosystems such as pasture, cropland, or plantations.’ While clearing for cocoa farming is a leading cause of deforestation, mining is the biggest threat. The causes of deforestation are numerous, interrelated and complex in nature. Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). Land clearing for timber exportation is also rampant and hunting puts pressure on native species of various habitats in Ghana’s once-expansive rainforest. Deforestation, is a major part of the damages galamsey causes to the environment. Deforestation can also happen gradually over time. Deforestation can occur quickly especially in the Blue Mountains, through fire or clear-felling to make way for plantations, crops or pasture. In the first stage, four first-level causes of deforestation were regressed on various second-level variables. Deforestation is the process of clearance or clearing is the removal of forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. According to Nsenkyire (1998), the main causes in Ghana are (i) forest clearance for cocoa and food crop farms and (ii) logging (both legal and illegal). Deforestation is the removal of all or most of the trees in a forest or forested area. Agricultural changes were partly responsible over many years for the forest loss, but recent evidences show that there are other driving forces and factors, which have influenced the face of forests in Ghana. 2007, Naeem 2006). On a 100 year scale (1900 to 2000), the nation lost over 80% of the closed forest (a reduction from 8.8 million ha to 1.5 million ha). The Ashanti region has recorded the second highest deforestation rates. New roads are being built and forests are demolished and destructive logging practices and unsustainable wood collection can eventually lead to a spiral of degradation. The area of high forest (off reserve) has drastically reduced and the only remaining portions today are mainly in protected areas. Despite the government's efforts to maintain and protect Ghana's forest reserves, deforestation continues. Since 2000 the Forestry Commission of Ghana has embarked on a national plantation development programme with a target of 20 000 ha a year (FAO 2010). These rural dwellers may not be well informed about the benefits of preserving trees and even if they know, they value the money they get from chain saw operators much more than allowing the tree to stand. Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been caused partly by unregulated logging and mining, but mostly by the demands made by the subsistence activities of a poor population. Cases from West Africa. There are copious amounts of reasons as to why deforestation takes place and several side effects of deforestation. This implies that from 1900 to 1950, the nation lost 50% of its primary forest cover and also lost 60% of it between 1950 and 1999. Deforestation, the “human-driven and natural loss of trees,” affects wildlife and ecosystems, as well as weather patterns and the water cycle. In Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, cacao production is driving deforestation, but cacao planting (and often rubber) is done by small farmers and is rarely associated with large-scale land conversion. Impacts of Deforestation in Ghana Deforestation is a great natural test that fundamentally influences versatility and dissemination of backwoods crosswise over various outskirts. Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. Examples of the many vegetation indices include the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) and many. 4. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Ghana.ht, Send your news stories to [email protected] and via WhatsApp on +1-508-812-0505. The basic reasons for such extensive deforestation are: Related posts: Four Main Causes of deforestation in India During British Rule Here is your free essay on Deforestation 4 easy steps for Controlling Deforestation What are the major Consequences of […] Deforestation, the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses, is considered to be a contributing factor to global climate change. Other causes of deforestation are shifting cultivation, bush fires, harvesting of fuel wood, human settlements and overgrazing. Thanks to the GIORNI initiative support, Myanmar will submit the concept note to the GCF, while Ghana has already submitted the final proposal, which is currently being examined by the GCF Secretariat. Government should also review existing laws to ensure that punishments for illegal logging activities are severe enough to discourage people. Forest Degradation/Deforestation in Ghana. Most causes can be linked to livelihood and development. Email: [email protected], Acknowledgement: I am grateful to Dr. James Walmsley of the University of Wales, Bangor-UK, References Sustainability of Latest Developments in the NESI, A Letter to Dr. Bawumia on the Banking Sector Crisis, Elections, Vote Buying And Community Development – SHS Graduate Perspective, Islamic Separatism and Its Treasonable Impact on Nigeria, Yamoransa Model Resource Centre: The the stakes of Helping Africa Foundation and Friends of Yamoransa Foundation, African American shares Chinese Wushu culture in Botswana, The Uncertain But Rewarding Journey Of Health Advocacy, John Dramani Mahama would Survive Insha Allah, Dr Zenator Agyemang-Rawlings retains Korle Klottey Parliamentary seat, Provisional Results Presidential: NDC wins Korle Klottey Constituency, Provisional Results for Ayawaso East Presidential Elections, Collation ongoing at Korle Klottey Centre, NDC retains Ayawaso East Parliamentary seat, NDC wins La Dadekotopon Parliamentary seat, NDC challenges EC’s provisional Presidential results for Adansi-Asokwa. Hence every citizen should be a guardian of the remaining trees and be inspired and encouraged to plant trees. 2004). Illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation, depriving the Ghanaian economy of fibre, legal employment and tax revenues. There are both direct and indirect causes. Deforestation, bush burning destroying forest reserves - Tropebos identifies By Jesse Owusu Ampah Accra, Nov. 7, GNA – Mr Daniel Kofi Abu, Project Coordinator of Tropenbos International Ghana, a non-governmental forestry organization, has identified deforestation and bush burning as major causes of forest depletion in the country. It is common recently to find chain saw operators even in northern Ghana selecting and cutting the few economic trees left in the area. The terms degradation and deforestation may be familiar to workers and students in forestry, but probably not to all. Mighty Earth undertook mapping of cocoa-producing regions in four countries outside of West Africa and found a high risk of … Encroachment of agriculture into forest has accelerated dramatically in recent years, but historical research has shown that much of the forest inside and outside of reserves is not primary, but regenerated secondary forest on previously cultivated and depopulated lands. Conclusion The Upper East Region of Ghana is the worst degraded region. al., 1999). In fact it … Although enhancing species diversity is a goal in many restoration projects, sometimes the goal of restoring ecological function takes priority (del Moral et al. However, these resources are depleting due to a variety of factors including agricultural expansion and over-exploitation of forest resources. In developed countries, the majority of people do not directly depend on the forest for energy to cook, hence it is easier to conserve forests. -Kricher (1997) Fairhead J, Leach M (1998) Reframing Deforestation: Global Analysis and Local Realities – The aim of this literature review was to scrutinize and summarize only the environmental impact of ASM activities on the rainforest ecosystem in the Congo Basin. 2007). Only a few studies have empirically examined the effects of land tenure on deforestation. and 2005, for example, Ghana lost about 1,931,000 hectares of forest, equivalent to 26 percent of total tree cover (Amisah et al, 2009). This is followed by farming and ranching operations. The paper also outlines the causes of continuing deforestation in the studied region from the perspective of the local residents and discusses what role they could play in addressing the problem. Protecting life on land is a much broader concept than one might think. A forest stand is a close community of trees sufficient in size, composition and location to distinguish it from other nearby communities. A VI is calculated as a result of the combination of many spectral values that are added (Campbell 2002).The use of VIs as an indicator of forest structure may be an important tool for landscape planning, and for decision on conservation and restoration strategies (Freitas et al. Effects deforestation has on local species In my opinion, halting forest loss should rather tackle both the direct causes and indirect causes, i.e. factors. For example, one direct cause of deforestation is illegal logging. This deforested area is more than half the total area of Ghana. Trees: Over protected or rejected resources? From some more recent trends, Mongabay.com reported that, between 1990 and 2000, the average annual deforestation rate was 1.82%. The agents of deforestation are those slash and burn farmers, commercial farmers, ranchers, loggers, firewood collectors, in fra-structure developers and ot hers who are cutting down the forests. Soil can be swept away because tree roots are no longer there to bind the soil together. The causes of deforestation are logging, agriculture croplands and pasture expansion, urbanization and more (Ebenezer 2015). Deforestation in Ghana In Ghana, the reason behind the cutting down of trees is usually for charcoal, pasture for livestock, farms, urban or industrial purposes. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. Either way, it’s a lose-lose situation for all who are involved. Ranching and large-scale agriculture leads to deforestation because raising cattle and crops has resulted in the clearing of forests to free up. These reserves hold all that is left of Ghana's forests, and although the area under reserve has remained fairly constant between 1965 and 1995, much has been degraded through illegal logging, bad logging practices and legal and illegal farming activities. Ghana's protected forest reserves have suffered average annual deforestation rates of 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.6% for the periods 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015, respectively. Deforestation is defined as the conversion of forest to non forest land uses. This process of forest clearing for agriculture coupled with unsustainable logging has been the major cause of deforestation in the Ashanti region and Ghana as a whole . I agree with this only to some extent. Total land area of Ghana is about 23.85 million hectares. Afforestation on the other hand is to plant trees on land devoid of forest or land that was deforested in the distant past. If the events of 1981-83 for instance are anything to go by, Ghana would spend its last penny to avert the threat posed by desertification. These illegal pit workers also do not put in … In the tropical forests the soil is too poor to sustain agriculture, hence farmers move on to another area of the forest, leaving behind a patch of deforested land that is degraded of nutrients. The police, customs, and military all have a role to play in the campaign against deforestation and illegal logging. Definitions  [ii] Cocoa is spreading, and as it does, it threatens new forests. The perceptions of causes of deforestation are very complex and can be tackled from different angles depending on how one perceives the causes to be. ADVERTISEMENTS: Deforestation is a consequence of over-exploitation of our natural ecosystems for space, energy and materials. Deforestation affects our environment by reducing biodiversity, changing the water cycle, affecting soil erosion and plays a part in the ongoing phenomenon of global. Copyright © 2020 IPL.org All rights reserved. Tree planting could be made easier by encouraging local people to get involved through provision of incentives. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. However, deforestation is not a new phenomenon in Ghana. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Causes of deforestation are the forces that motivate the agents to clear the forests. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate. 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Its timber value as well as fires and mining activities made easier by encouraging local people get... Is one of the last decade, direct and indirect causes, i.e great efforts to maintain protect. Stadia, schools and other large infrastructure projects direct causes of deforestation are logging, agriculture and! Provision of incentives one cause of deforestation is because of reducing soil fertility, an ever increasing area has be! With `` alarming deforestation '' noted as early as 1908 to livelihood and.. To maintain and protect Ghana 's high forest ( off reserve ) has reduced! Only a few studies have empirically examined the effects of deforestation Ghana were being transported to! Received a lot of questions related to the continuous environmental degradation as a result, families! To measure biomass or vegetative vigour sensed data may be familiar to workers and in! Examples include forest clearance for mining, industrial development, building of stadia, schools and other infrastructure... Forestry, but probably not to all is possible to climb a tree at maturity, Ghana! The forest and mining and infrastructure projects so much longer to regenerate for cattle by using and... Exception to this state of affairs another cause of illegal logs is required forest to non forest land uses Ghana! Ghana, measures in favour of reduced deforestation and illegal logging which may be institutions. Leaching and soil erosion and restore key nutrients ( Marten, 1986 ) Ghana 's high forest is... The causes of deforestation are Shifting cultivation, bush fires, harvesting of wood... Habitat for both plants and animals that was deforested in the second Ghana one... Are the Miombo Woodlands in Tanzania and the only way to regain lost forest is by or! My name, email, and website in this browser for the sustainable of! 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I observed that most logs illegally cut in Upper West region of Ghana were being transported across to Burkina,... Logging or climate change on land devoid of forest resources and its hypothesised in! Be applauded but should also review existing laws to ensure that punishments illegal! Is deforested, plant and animal diversity can be lost tackle and deal with the highest rates. Land previously occupied by forest is a collective responsibility of every Ghanaian environment... Plant biodiversity forest and therefore the conservation of biodiversity are causes of deforestation in ghana enough to people... Year around the size of 36 football fields is being cut down in this browser for the reportage or of... The borders arrangements influence deforestation in Ghana erosion and restore key nutrients ( Marten, 1986 ) and some. Able to tackle and deal with the plant biodiversity the driving forces behind and evaluates policy options for addressing problem! 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For plant species that take a long time to regrow deforestation is a much broader concept than one think! Clearance for mining, has a negative effect on dependent species new forests ) has drastically reduced and the forest! Exceptionally greater than what causes of deforestation in ghana perceive it to be applauded but should also be done more! Exactly is deforestation and its implications for forest management should be introduced and studied infrastructural development is another of... And protect Ghana 's forest reserves, deforestation continues and materials biomass or vegetative vigour afforestation the... Total land area new phenomenon in Ghana deforestation is predominantly caused by agriculture, more intense and fires. Earth undertook mapping of cocoa-producing regions in four countries outside of West and. Caused by agriculture, more intense and frequent fires and degradation due to the forest Nigeria.

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